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AAA (American Association of Advertising Agencies)
a non-profit trade association dedicated to improving and strengthening the advertising agency business. See www.aaaa.org for more information.

ANA (Association of National Advertisers)
the trade association serving the needs of advertisers and marketers by providing leadership in advertising and marketing trends and best practices. See ana.net for more information.

ARF (Advertising Research Foundation)
a nonprofit trade association whose mission is profitable business through effective research and insights. See arfsite.org for more information.

when a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it prior to completing the transaction.

when a Web server does not successfully transfer a unit of content or ad to a browser. This is usually caused by a user hitting the stop button, the ESC key, or clicking on another link prior to the completion of a download.

Activity audit
independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique users. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics. Formerly known as a count audit.

a commercial message targeted to an advertiser’s customer or prospect.

Ad audience
the number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.

Ad banner
a graphic image or other media object used as an advertisement. See iab.net for voluntary guidelines for banner ads.

Ad blocker
software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.

Ad campaign audit
an activity audit for a specific ad campaign.

Ad centric measurement
audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server's own server logs.

Ad click
a measurement of the user-initiated action of responding to (such as clicking on) an ad element causing a re-direct to another Web location or another frame or page within the advertisement. There are three types of ad clicks: 1) click-throughs; 2) in-unit clicks; and 3) mouseovers. Ad click-throughs should be tracked and reported as a 302 redirect at the ad server and should filter out robotic activity.

Ad click rate
ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.

Ad display/Ad delivered
when an ad is successfully displayed on the user's computer screen.

Ad download
when an ad is downloaded by a server to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested, but aborted or abandoned before actually being downloaded to the browser, and hence there would be no opportunity to see the ad by the user.

a unique identifier for a computer or site online, usually a URL for a Web site or marked with an @ for an e-mail address. Literally, it is how one computer finds the location of another computer using the Internet.

Ad impression
1) an ad which is served to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested by the user’s browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads; 2) a measurement of responses from an ad delivery system to an ad request from the user's browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and is recorded at a point as late as possible in the process of delivery of the creative material to the user's browser -- therefore closest to the actual opportunity to see by the user. Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user - a) server-initiated and b) client-initiated. Server-initiated ad counting uses the publisher's Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user's browser to perform these activities.

For organizations that use a serverinitiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher's ad server or the Web content server. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher's ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process. See iab.net for ad campaign measurement guidelines.

Ad impression
Click-throughs divided by ad impressions. See click rate.

Ad insertion
when an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.

Ad materials
the creative artwork, copy, active URLs and active target sites which are due to the seller prior to the initiation of the ad campaign.

Ad network
an aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad networks are the sales representatives for the Web sites within the network.

Ad recall
a measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents are exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time are asked if they recall the ad. Ad recall can be on an aided or unaided basis. Aided ad recall is when the respondent is told the name of the brand or category being advertised.

Ad request
the request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user's action as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.

Ad serving
the delivery of ads by a server to an end user's computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a Web publisher, or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.

Ad space
the location on a page of a site in which an advertisement can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. Multiple ad spaces can exist on a single page.

Ad stream
the series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site (also impression stream).

Ad transfers
the successful display of an advertiser's Web site after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and re-directs or "transfers" the user's browser to an advertiser's Web site. If the user successfully displays the advertiser's Web site, an ad transfer is recorded.

Ad view
when the ad is actually seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.

Ad window
separate from the content window.

the company paying for the advertisement.

Advertising revenue
revenue realized from the sale of advertising. See interactive advertising revenue.

Affiliate marketing
an agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.

Affinity marketing
selling products or services to customers on the basis of their established buying patterns. The offer can be communicated by e-mail promotions, online or offline advertising.

Alternate text
a word or phrase that is displayed when a user has image loading disabled in their browser or when a user abandons a page by hitting "stop" in their browser prior to the transfer of all images. Also appears as “balloon text” when a user lets their mouse rest over an image.

Animated advertisement
an ad that changes over time. For example, an animated ad is an interactive Java applet or Shockwave or GIF89a file.

Animated GIF
an animation created by combining multiple GIF images in one file. The result is multiple images, displayed one after another, that give the appearance of movement.

an intermediary which prevents Web sites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.

a small, self-contained software application that is most often used by browsers to automatically display animation and/or to perform database queries requested by the user.

Applicable browser
any browser an ad will impact, regardless of whether it will play the ad.

distortion that is introduced into audio or video by the compression algorithm (codec). Compressed images may have stray pixels (often white dots) that were not present in the original image. See codec.

Aspect ratio
the width-to-height ratio of the picture frame. TV broadcasts at a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio; digital TV will be broadcast with a 16:9 (1.78:1) ratio; and most feature films are shot in at least a 1.85:1 ratio. IMUs have an aspect ratio of 6:5 (330x 250; 336 x 280; and 180 x 150).

third party validation of log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet activity/advertising. Activity audits validate measurement counts. Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement.

a third party independent organization that performs audits.


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